Twenty-First-Century Land Grabs
The current wave protests first began in Atbara, a dusty town on the Nile, located kilometres north of Khartoum. An understanding of the background might help explain the social composition and the behaviour of the Atbara protesters on 18 and 19 December last year, the initial spark of the current wave of demonstrations. The Atbara protests were an immediate popular response to the tripling of bread prices in Atbara after a government decision to slash wheat subsidies i.
Through this policy, the government was clearly testing the limits of the people to know what is seen as tolerable or not by the inhabitants of Atbara. They directed their anger at recognisable symbols of power and privilege in Atbara. In fact, far from being an undistinguished town, Atbara has a strong labour militancy and emancipatory memory. It is also a creature of colonial dominance. It came to be thanks to imperial design. The town is a byproduct of the railway line that the incoming army of Anglo-Egyptian occupation constructed to effectively transport troops up the Nile to defeat the Mahdist state.
The first stirrings of labour union in Atbara date back to the s. Atbara was an experiment in city making. It attracted landless peasants and emancipated slaves seeking employment in the new sphere of labour. The solidarity within the trade union was a revolutionary social relationship that has challenged and often successfully supplanted the bonds of ethnicity, race and even gender. Atbara became a citizenship and a label for its people, referred as Atbarawis irrespective of their ethnic or tribal origins.
It was under Nimayri that Sudan Railways were starved of funding and Atbara workers laid off in droves. More layoffs and the eventual privatisation of the railways followed under al-Bashir. It now attracts artisanal miners from all around the country, mostly impoverished peasants and urban poor, who use it as recovery plant and sales point. Unlike the railway workers, these are self-employed small producers often locked into deadly competition with mining firms still in the exploratory stages of their enterprises.
Some will eventually be forced to sell their labour force to these bigger companies if and when gold mining on an industrial scale proves profitable for the foreign investors. They burnt the NCP headquarters, attempted to storm the local government headquarters and forcibly opened the storehouses of the Zakat chamber 2 for spontaneous mass distribution.
Similar scenes were repeated in al-Rahad and al-Nuhud in Kordofan, both centres of agricultural trade. Up to this point, the mass of protesters were drawn from poor town dwellers and from people who have lost out in the reworking of land relations in rural Sudan to the benefit of commercial agriculture. It was at this juncture that the government used its racist ideology to dismiss the protests as violent deeds of criminal elements. Darfuri students were rounded up at gun point from their houses in Sennar and Khartoum and paraded in front of television cameras with bunches of mobile phones, laptops and light weapons to demonstrate their crimes.
They disappeared in the detention centres of the NISS without much of a trace. It was also in Atbara and Gedaref that the response of the security services was particularly violent and bloody. When facing subaltern elements the security services exercised no restrain in shooting. When the Khartoum activists celebrate the martyrs of the revolution, those killed in Gedaref feature as a number. In Khartoum, the picture was certainly different.
The protests were dominated by the middle classes, mostly young professionals and university students, and were indeed non-violent. There was often a carnivalesque atmosphere, amplified by the power of social media. Young women and men competed in documenting their involvement through Facebook livestreams and a flurry of pictures taken with their smartphones and internet-connected cameras. The epicentre of protests was in Burri, a predominantly middle class neighbourhood.
Here young women and men were in a way living out new subjectivities of insubordination and revolt against the government, and more importantly against a patriarchal moral order. In this light, the bulk of protesters in many locations were young women. The young women on the streets were demonstrating corporeal presence, agency and discontent with the gender architecture of the city. That said, it is worthwhile wondering about the freedoms that the middle class protesters pursue.viogeblisiwea.gq
Primitive Capital Accumulation in the Sudan
On one hand it is indeed the freedom from tyranny, from political oppression, the freedom of expression. It is also, I presume, the freedom to consume, the freedom of the individual aspirant in a socioeconomic field structured by the interests of commercial capital, the freedom to win. The anger of the Khartoum protesters was directed against a tyrannical political system, and mostly against the person of al-Bashir, the dictator and his cronies.
The anger of the Khartoum protesters was directed against a tyrannical political system, and mostly against the person of al-Bashir, the dictator and his cronies. People rose up against the lack of benefits but not necessarily against the structures of power and privileges that create and condition these benefits. The SPA announced its existence in August at a press conference during which it unveiled a study on the minimum wage.
Their original intent was to submit the study together with a list of demands to Parliament in a demonstration of professionals. The turn of events in December pushed them to adopt a new strategy.
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The decisive act of overthrowing the dictator is outsourced to a military officer who is supposed to align the military with the interests of the protest movement, now understood as a the agent of popular will. Both emerged in the midst of mass political mobilization to claim a leadership role as representative of middle-class professionals, without having to rely on powerful allies. The Syndicates Front, at a time of leftist ideological domination, considered itself as a vanguard made of radical petty bourgeoisie.
It had militant allies from the working class and the organised peasantry, namely the Sudan Trade Unions Federation and the Farmers Union, both having communist leadership. Accordingly, the Syndicates Front could indeed muscle power and constitute the transitional government after October ; a worker and farmer actually occupied ministerial positions to the dismay of the Sudanese establishment. Outside the perimeters of the central zones where most of the big crowds congregated, different neighbourhoods equally exhibit the mobilization of their inhabitants.
However, the patrician parties 3 made a spectacular come back within a year. It is during this period that we witnessed the first proposals for a powerful presidency, an Islamic constitution and a religious State that finally became the agenda of counter-revolution in Sudan. The constituents of the Syndicates Front, demoralised and excluded from power by the patrician parties, would look into another direction the next time.
Dispossession by Enclosures: Primary Accumulation and the British Agricultural Revolution
Their leaders actively plotted with likeminded military officers to achieve the coup that brought Jaafar Nimayri to power. Nimayri was their sovereign, their claim was that May was the continuation of October The Islamic Movement had by the time gone a long way in displacing the old elite and becoming the new reliable ally for the military.
This time it was the Islamist professionals who were the vanguard of the petty bourgeoisie. What do we learn from this record? Associations of professionals emerge in moments of revolutionary crisis, their politics is always oscillating between alliance with popular classes and reliance on the military as a way to secure power. Their political instincts favour change from above and their proposal of a transitional government dissimulates putschist inclinations usually popularised under the slogan of the army siding with the people.
In this light the distinction between Islamist and secular groups is arguably secondary since both factions of the middle class have followed similar political strategies in capturing the state: both had their Bonaparte, the secularists their Nimayri and the Islamists their al-Bashir. Abd al-Rahim was the Islamist financier who masterminded the s neoliberal assault with identical features.
At the current juncture, it is predominantly a revolt of the salaried classes, and the SPA arguably operates as their political voice. The expansion of privatised higher education in Sudan under this government is a powerful factor. For a moment there, the sophisticated daughters and sons of the most privileged families were lined up facing rustic policemen of mostly subaltern extraction.
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In a way, the Islamic Movement through its restructuring of the economy in favour of commercial enterprises engendered an expansion of the urban middle classes who no longer share its ideological trappings. Once an engine for the interests of a provincial educated elite, it is today a shackle on the aspirations of urbanite cosmopolitans who, like the Islamists of yesteryear, want a nation crafted according to their self-image. To my mind, this vintage patriotism, resuscitated from a glorified era of perceived political innocence that predates the fractures of party politics, regional dissent and civil war, serves to obfuscate social conflict and to reimagine the nation as an organic whole undented by difference.
Obviously, the continuities you mentioned are important. This might demonstrate the importance of the Atbara bond I talked about earlier: trade unions generated the idea of rightful citizenship as opposed to the clientelism of the patricians. Newsletter facebook twitter. Who are these people who went to the streets? For these last two months, do we notice an evolution in the profile of the protesters? What kind of differences could we see between the capital and the provincial cities looking at both the demonstrations and the protesters?
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What about the spread of contest from Atbara to the entire country? A new organization that brings together liberal professional associations doctors, lawyers … , the SPA, seems to take the lead of the current social movement. Who are they and what does this alliance really represent both sociologically and in the Sudanese trade union landscape? What is the strategy of this new organization? And what parallel can be drawn between this association SPA and the role of trade unions in the revolutions of and ?